Check out tax matters arising from Australian Federal Government's budget May 2016, provided by SR Sheth & Co Chartered Accountants at
There is a general assumption that small businesses around Australia would love to see a reduction in penalty rates. The assumption behind this assumption is that, if you reduce the penalty rates, the savings are added to the bottom line. But this assumption needs to be tested. My guess is that if you did a proper analysis you might find that success in small business is a much more complicated story than this suggests.
An Australian consultant asked us to prepare a template for a contract for her to take on a consultancy brief, & we just put it up. As 'consultants' provide an intellectual service, usually in the form of advice and reporting, it is slightly different to other independent technical project participants. It concentrates on professionalism, technical advice, and who 'owns' parts of the final delivery. It prepares for the possibility of giving poor advice, "covering your butt" if you get it wrong. The appendices describe deliverables and a 'statement of requirements'.
A: If you are starting a not-for-profit NFP organization, you have to be very careful it's not a scam or a fraud, cos you could find yourself in lots of trouble. Just sayin'. In Australia there are non-incorporated organizations, incorporated organizations, and companies limited by guarantee. Each of these has a history of organizing that tells you a lot about what you should be doing, so do some background reading.
A: Many businesses just need an ABN to get started. Some businesses need a licence, others don't. Best to check with your state business regulator, if you're not sure. To find out if you need to go down that track, best to have a chat with someone already running a business like this nearby.
A: In Australia, the Corporations Act 2001 does not have a minimum age you have to have reached before you can be a shareholder of a company, so 14YO is a real possibility. It even has the possibility of a single shareholder/director under particular circumstances. But you don't have to be a company to do most things.
You can run your own business just with an ABN number, as a single person contractor. Contact the ATO to get your ABN and just get started.