An "ism" is a philosophical tool for identifying (and promoting) particular ways of looking at the world. These could identify a particular theory, cause, explanation, explication, belief, dogma, doctrine, or a particular system of logical statements. Here we provide a simple dictionary of philosophy: a list of "isms" with definitions and links to interesting uses of the "ism" across the world.

These research notes are offered to those who want to research the academic world for the meaning of stylesheets for essays.
There is enough in these research notes to do it for yourself. Many connections are provided to academic sites across the world.

Style Guides

APA = American Psychology Association

CBE = Council of Biology Editors

Chicago = Chicago University

Harvard = Harvard University

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