IT - Glossary - Activities & Applications

A dictionary of terms and their definitions and the common interpretation of acronyms used by the IT systems developer, tech writer, manager, etc. especially useful for understanding ads for IT jobs or contract work from the head-hunters in the Australian government, business and industrial environments

ABAP = Advanced Business Application Programming (SAP R/3)

academia = terms & acronyms that might be of interest to students or teachers

Access = MS application

Acrobat = Adobe application

acronym = a word (often pronounceable) formed from the initial letters of a name; for legal and political acronyms in common parlance in Australia Click here

Active Directory (AD) = MS tool for Windows for a digital model of the network, includes users, groups, organizational units, management domains and administrative information

= Active Directory

ADI = Application Desktop Integrator (Oracle)

ADI = application development and integration

ADI = AutoCAD Device Interface

ADI = AutoDesk Device Interface

ADO = ActiveX Data Object (MS)

ADO = abstract design object

ADO = active data object

ADO = advanced development objective

ADO = Australian Defence Organisation

ADSL = asymmetric digital subscriber line

Adobe = Acrobat, InDesign, Photoshop, Illustrator

AJAX = asynchronous JavaScript and XML = a higher level model or paradigm for combining two languages into a meaningful and effective protocol

Anonymous FTP = a file transfer between locations that does not require users to identify themselves with a password or login. An anonymous FTP is not secure, because any other user of the WWW can access it

ANSI = American National Standards Institute: a membership organization that coordinates the development of US voluntary national standards in both the private and public sector

API = application programming interface

application = (software) (program): a set of files including executables, configuration files, and data that is usable by a user

application guide = user manual for a particular application; sometimes a cut-down version of the user manual

application testing = See UAT

application optimisation = a methodology for providing a user with best performance access to client/server applications using such tools as load balancing, caching, compression, SSL acceleration, attack defence, SSL VPN, etc

application streaming = an emerging paradigm for delivering desktop applications to end-point devices for local execution based on profiling the user's requirements and then publishing a profiled version to be "streamed on demand" to the user's desktop

application virtualisation = a methodology for providing a user with access to client/server applications that appear to be at the workstation but are centrally deployed and managed allowing network managers to gain control over cost, security, performance, and scalability

APS = Australian Public Service

APS Employee levels = APS1 APS2 APS3 APS4 APS5 APS6 EL1 EL3 SES1 SES2 SES3

architecture = the design of a computer system based on the type of programs that will run and the number of programs that run concurrently; usually defined by the international standards adopted that allow all hardware devices and all applications in the system to speak to each other

AS = Australian Standards

AS/NZS = Australian Standards and New Zealand Standards combined publication

AS 3806:1998 = Compliance programs

AS 5037-2005 = Knowledge management - a guide; See SAI Global

AS ISO/IEC 20000 Set-2007 = Information technology ? Service Set; See SAI Global

AS/NZS 4360:2004 = Risk management; See AS/NZS ISO 31000:2009

AS/NZS 4360:SET = Risk Management Set

AS/NZS 4801:2001 = Occupational health and safety management systems - Specification with guidance for use

AS/NZS 4819:2003 = Geographic information - Rural and urban addressing; See SAI Global

AS/NZS 9001:2000 = Quality management systems - Requirements

AS/NZS ISO/IEC 27001:2006 = Information technology - Security techniques - Information security management systems - Requirements; See SAI Global

AS/NZS ISO/IEC 27002:2006 = Information technology - Security techniques - Code of practice for information security management; See SAI Global

AS/NZS 60950.1:2003 = Information technology equipment - Safety - General requirements; See SAI Global

AS/NZS 60950.1:2003/Amdt 3:2008 = Information technology equipment - Safety - General requirements (IEC 60950-1:2001, MOD); See SAI Global

ASAP = "as soon as possible" (vernacular)

Ascential = See IBM WebSphere

ASN = Abstract Syntax Notation = MS application

auDA = Domain Administration

audience = the readers of the document who need to understand all aspects of the document

Australian Standards = SAI

AuthorIT = content management system used by tech writers to produce single-sourced document sets such as Help content in RTF, Adobe PDF, MS Word, etc.

BA = business analysis

BA = business analyst

BASIC = Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (programming language)

BCP (pronounced letter by letter) = business continuity planning

BDSL = business grade digital subscriber line

best practice = formulas and procedures that have proven successful in practice, identified by general international acceptance. In the IT world, best practice often refers to software development methodologies widely accepted internationally

best practice policy = policy written for and adopted by the company (usually based on and involving the adoption of international best practice)

Beta Testing = See UAT

BEx = See SAP BEx

BI = business intelligence

BIA (pronounced letter by letter) = business impact analysis

BIMS = business inventory management system

bit = the smallest unit in a binary system; on-off; 0-1 ; not in and of itself meaningful but when combined in a meaningful array (a byte) forms the basis of all information in a binary system

BIU = business intelligence unit

BMS = business management software

BMS = business management system

BO = Business Objects

BPEL = business process education language

BPM = business process modelling

BPMN = Business Process Modelling Notation from iGrafx

BRD = business requirements document

Brio = intelligence collector and reporter application (now Hyperion)

BSI = British Standards Institute; UK Standards body; now BSI National Standards

business analysis specialists = Senior Business Analyst, Report Writer, Analysis Service Technician, Project Manager, Technical Writer

business analyst = a logician aware of business processes, an individual (usually with a BSc or MSc) who analyses the operations of a department or functional unit with the purpose of developing a general systems solution to the problem that may or may not require automation. If it does, may need the assistance of a systems analyst

business documentation = a process of documentation (usually policy and procedures)

Business Explorer = application to create and enhance reports/queries using variables, multiple key figures and calculated key figures

business intelligence unit (BIU) = database, library & meta-data system

business intelligence specialist = Senior Business Analyst, Report Writer, Analysis Service Specialist, Project Manager, Technical Writer

business inventory management system = generic descriptive

business management software = generic descriptive

business management system = generic descriptive

business need = business requirement

Business Objects = see IBM WebSphere

Business Objects XI =

Business Objects universe = a schema for BO

business requirement = a requirement of the business stakeholder

business stakeholder = the stakeholder from the business section, concerned with management, enterprise, productivity and profitability

BW = see SAP BW

byte = a meaningful array of 8 bits or 32 bits of information

C (pronounced as letter) = a high-level programming language that impacts on the computer at a low level, like assembly language. Today, C is used to write a huge variety of applications and almost all operating systems. C is written as a series of functions that call each other for processing. Even the body of the program is a function named "main". Functions are very flexible, allowing programmers to choose from the standard library that comes with the compiler, to use third party libraries or to develop their own

C++ (pronounced C-plus-plus) = object-oriented successor to C

C# (pronounced C Sharp) = an object-oriented programming language from MS that is based on C++, with elements from Visual Basic and Java

CA = (the) certificating authority (in public key infrastructure (PKI))

CAFM = computer-aided facilities management

call centre = organisation or operation or enterprise dedicated to Help Desk services

CBD = central business district (vernacular)

CBT = computer-based training

CCL = Cerner Command Language

CCNA = Cisco Certified Network Associate

CD = compact disc

CD-ROM = compact disc (with) read-only-memory

Cerner Millenium = health care records system

certificating authority (CA) = see public key infrastructure (PKI)

change = an addition, modification or alteration that is agreed to be included contrary to expectation, that is to say, it was not intended in the original specifications or project plan or statement of works

change control = a formal process/procedure for controlling changes under Project. It governs the definition, impact assessment, assignment of responsibilities, specification, and allocation of resources, costing, scheduling and authorisation of modifications under strict laws governing the change until the change is properly approved, the version control impact has been systematically applied and the consequent changes are incorporated in the project plans as if they had been there from the outset

change management = change control

CHM = Compiled HTML Help

Citrix = systems and applications providing application virtualisation, application optimisation, application streaming, web-conferencing, remote technical assistance, access security & control, firewalls, enterprise single sign-on, SSL VPN, remote PC access, application networking, application acceleration, application security, application traffic management, and IP telephony

CLI = command line interface

client/server = see server

Cluster = Novell application

CMMS = computerised maintenance management systems

CMS = code management system (used in programming)

CMS = content management system (used in website design and control)

COBOL = (common business oriented language) = A high-level programming language that has been the primary business application language on mainframes and minis

Cognos 8 = business intelligence application: reporting, analysis, score-carding, dashboards, business event management, data integration

COIN = financial planners' application

Coin3D = graphics real-time application

ColdFusion = Macromedia application

COM = Component Object Model (MS standard) see also SOM

COM+ = COM with enhancements including translation of native C++ into COM call and COM interfaces in familiar programming syntax instead of IDL

communications writer = technical writer specialising in communications best practice

Compliance BA = BA dedicated to UAT against a particular standard

compliant environment = an environment tested against a particular standard

compliant platform = the main system, language or model tested against a particular standard

component object model (COM) = a component software architecture from MS for building program routines (objects) that can be called up and executed in a Windows environment

ControlM = batch scheduling application originally for mainframes but now available for UNIX through Windows environments

copy = text (vernacular borrowed from journalism)

copy writer = writer of text to first draft

corporate document = legal or political document required to run the company

corporate documentation = preparing corporate documents with full knowledge of the law and best practice

corporate performance management (CPM) = an umbrella term that describes all of the processes, methodologies, metrics and systems needed to measure and manage performance

CPM = corporate performance management

CPU = central processing unit

CRM = customer relationship management (software)

Crystal Report Writer = popular reporting and analysis software for Windows that is used to retrieve data from more than 30 types of databases. Using various Web options, queries, and reports can be made via a Web browser. Crystal Reports functionality can also be added to proprietary programs written in languages such as C, C++, J++, Delphi, and Visual Basic

CRW = Crystal Report Writer

CSS = cascading style sheets (HTML)

CSS = cross site script (now XSS)

cube = See data cubes

DAP = Directory Access Protocol

dashboard application = an application providing access to information interactively with the user usually through analytical modelling and access to up-to-the-minute data (example: share trading)

DAT = data architecture team: data architect, process architect, ETL specialist, data warehousing specialist

data = the generic name for information that exists in a base form (usually but not necessarily a meaningful array of 8 bits or 32 bits) that can be stored and accessed by applications and used in the delivery of that information or as the source for the processing of and combination with and delivery of other related information

data cubes = data stored at a three dimensional ordinance, because of particular infrastructural requirements; See OLAP,

data dictionary = a series of data tables and a dictionary of all data elements, their source and transformations through the system

data flow analysis = data input, data output, data tables, data dictionary

data input = data flows into the system, their source, format and frequency

data modelling = see ERM

data output = data flows out of the system, their source, format and frequency

data warehouse = DBMS, DMS, data storage systems, meta-data

DB = database

DBMS = database management system

DDLC = document development life cycle

desktop (graphical representation) = the graphical representation of an office environment (with card index, waste bin, filing cabinet, and so on) that is a feature of GUIs

desktop (strategic) = the user's environment on the network, desktop (what can be installed on the user's PC) versus calls on the server, installing more applications on the desktop requiring less interaction with the server

development guru = (vernacular for) Senior Software Developer, System Architect, Data Warehouse Specialist

DI = digital interface

Directory Access Protocol (DAP) = part of X.500; a protocol to assist the location of organisations, individuals, and other resources such as files and devices on the Internet or in a network or intranet (see LDAP)

DRP) = the process of planning for the recovery from an identified risk of a magnitude categorised as a disaster to pre-disaster condition

Discoverer = Oracle application

DITA = Darwin Information Typing Architecture DITA is the official community gathering place and information resource for the DITA OASIS Standard, an XML architecture for designing, writing, managing, and publishing information

DMS = document management system

distributed cache =

distributed cache synchronization =

DNS = domain name system/service

document management system = management of document creation, release, integration, storage, retrieval, retirement and removal based on agreed best practice and meta-data principles

document development life cycle (DDLC) = documentation lifecycle for a major document such as the user manual which integrates with the SDLC

documentation lifecycle = plan, design, research, write, edit, present and maintain

documentation specialist = generalist technical writer with wide and deep knowledge of the documentation process that can be applied to a large number of projects

DOM = document object model

DOM Script = using formal script (usually Java) to achieve DOM

domain name system/service (DNS) = a means of translating a domain name into an IP address and vice-versa

Dreamweaver = Macromedia application

Drill Down Report = Crystal report writing tool

DRP (pronounced letter by letter) = disaster recovery planning

DTS = MS Data Transformation Services (ETL tool)

EAI = enterprise application integration

ECC = ERP central component (SAP)

ECL = extensible computer language (Harvard)

ECM = enterprise content management

EDI = Electronic Data Interchange

EDRMS = electronic data (and) resource management system

EFT = Electronic Funds Transfer

Ektron = supplier of CMS (web management)

eLearning = electronic learning

Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) = standard for transfer of purchase orders, invoices and corporate EFTs

Electronic Learning (eLearning) = An generic term for providing online courseware over the Internet using supplier websites and educator networks or intranet

EL = Extensible Language

EL1 = EL used in ECL operating system

EL1 = Executive Level 1 (of the APS)

EL2 = Executive Level 2 (of the APS)

ELK = Extension Language Kit (Scheme)

end-user = user (of application)

end-user testing = See UAT

enterprise content management (ECM) = a platform for sharing content and data across the enterprise

enterprise resource planning (ERP) = an integrated information system that serves all departments within an enterprise using packaged software modules for manufacturing, order entry, accounts receivable and payable, general ledger, purchasing, warehousing, transportation and human resources interfaced with an organization's own software or with a standard programming language. The major ERP vendors are SAP, PeopleSoft, Oracle, Baan, and JD Edwards

environment = the systemic connections to an element of the system (usually the application), including communications and related applications

ER = entity relationships (in a system); data modelling

ERD = ER diagram (data modelling tool)

ER model = entity relationships model (ERM)

ERM = ER model

ERP = Enterprise Resource Planning

ERP Tier One = functionality and user acceptance, integration, multiple systems under one program and database

ERP Tier Two = client-server

ERP Tier Three = multiple servers - application/database split of the server

ERPS = Ethernet Ring Protection Switching

ERwin = data modelling

ESRI = Environmental Systems Research Institute, supplier of GIS

ETL = Extract, Transform and Load

Excel = MS application

expert = specialist

FAQ = frequently asked question

FCR = first call resolution (Help Desk)

File Transfer Protocol (FTP) = a language used for file transfer from computer to computer across the WWW

FileNet = application for ECM

Financial Services Guide (FSG) = document required by licensed Australian financial service

Fireworks = Macromedia application

Flash = Macromedia application

FMS = facilities management systems

FPA = Financial Planning Association (of Australia)

Framemaker = Adobe application

frequently asked question (FAQ) = a means whereby a question to be asked by the user in a help system can be predicted and answered, allowing users immediate answer to their questions by clicking on the FAQ

FrontPage = MS application

FSG = financial services guide

FSG = Free Standards Group

FSG (Oracle) = Financial Statements Generator

FTP = file transfer protocol

functional requirements = an initial definition of a proposed system, which translates user requirements into a set of requirements internal to the system being created from which programming can take place

functional requirements specifications = a formal statement containing the functional requirements translated into a set of integrated specifications

how to = user guides

gap analysis = formal analysis of the difference between a system specification and a particular set of functional analysis and user requirements

GB 002:2004 = Australian Business Excellence Framework

generalist technical writer = a professional writer (usually viewed as "ghost writer") who specialises in the writing process and the technical/scientific disciplines/processes; needs to learn particularities of the project before starting documentation process but may achieve high standards because of his/her knowledge of a broad range of standards; compare specialist

GIF = graphics interchange format

GIS = geographical information systems

glossary = a list of words that have special meaning because of their context of use and an explanation of the special definitions assigned to them

graphical user interface (GUI) = an interface between the user of a terminal and the computer that communicates largely through the interaction of the user with graphics rather than the displaying of text and the input of text by the user

graphics interchange format (GIF) = (pronounced "jiff" or "giff") a bit-mapped graphics file

GroupWise = Novell application

GUI = graphical user interface

HB 221:2004 = Business Continuity Management

HB 436:2004 = Risk Management Guidelines Companion to AS/NZS 4360:2004

HB 254-2005 = Governance, risk management and control assurance

HDK = Hardware Developer's Kit

HDLC = High-Level Data Link Control

help-desk = a call centre or telephone service that appears to the outside user to be a single point of contact for a user experiencing problems or seeking further information

help-desk script = a technical procedure or FAQ re-written into conversational language that assists a help-desk or call centre operator give advice or answer questions

High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC) = an bit-oriented synchronous ISO communications protocol used in X.25 networks, providing error correction at data link Layer 2

Holocentric Modeller = application by Prism International Pty Ltd

HTML = hypertext mark-up language

HTTP = Hypertext Transfer Protocol

http = Hypertext Transfer Protocol (with) Secure (certificate)

human resources = specialist terms & acronyms

human resources stakeholder = the stakeholder from the HR section, concerned with IR law compliance, individual AWA content and compliance, employee career development, training, employee satisfaction, employee awareness, occupational health and safety, team safety, employee safety, public safety, employee privacy

Hypertext Mark-up Language (HTML) = the document format used on the WWW. Web pages are built with HTML tags (codes) embedded in the text. HTML defines the page layout, fonts and graphic elements as well as the hypertext links to other documents on the Web using URL

Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) = the set of rules for transferring files on the WWW

Hypertext Transfer Protocol with Secure certificate (HTTP) = a WWW protocol that encrypts and decrypts user page requests and pages returned by the Web server under a formal certification process offering more security to users for such processes as user registration and credit card purchasing


IBM WebSphere = application for information integration and reporting

ICANN = International Corporation (for the) Assignment (of Domain) Names (and) Numbers

ICT = information (communication) technology

iCOM = health care software

IEC = International Electrotechnical Commission

iGrafx = integrated suite of process-related applications: FlowCharter, Process, IDEFO, BPEL, enterprise modelling, BPMN

Illustrator = Adobe application

ILS = Integrated Leadership System (of the APS)

ILS = Integrated Logistic Support (Defence)

ILS = Internet location servers

IMC = Information Management Committee

iMIS = application targeting non-profit organisations supporting association and membership management, fundraising and donor management, executive management, etc.

InDesign = Adobe application

index = any statistical representation or indicator

index = a numerical scale used to compare variables with one another or with some reference number often used in financial industry for a quick and easily understood indicator of the price or the value of the securities in a given market

index definition = SQL process for creating and dropping indices

Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) = a program that focuses on infrastructure, five broad themes: communications, computer science, electronics, human interactivity, and photonics

information management = formal protocols, procedures and best practice for IT management

Information Mapping = particular formalised commercial system of technical writing and associated rules of meta-data

information technology (IT) = computer systems both hardware and software applied to creation, collection, collation, processing, storage, retrieval of information, including electronic communications systems and systems for gaining access to such information, such as networking, and that part of the enterprise concerned with these systems

Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) = one of the more comprehensive as well as non-proprietary and publicly available sets of guidelines for "best practice" IT services management, owned by the British Office of Government Commerce (OGC). Each library module provides a code of practice intended to improve IT efficiencies, reduce risks, and increase the effectiveness and quality of IT services management and infrastructure

Information Technology Service Management (ITSM) = performance-based best practices

InfoPath = See (MS InfoPath)

installation guide = a user guide for installation by the user of a small or commercially available application

internal stakeholder = See stakeholder

internet = a large network made up of a number of smaller networks

Internet = one internet (now known as "the Internet") that has gained wide international acceptance and has adopted the generic name as its identifier

Internet location servers (ILS) = MS application to allow users of Netmeeting (and CUSeeMe Pro) to find and call each other easily over the Internet

Internet protocol (IP) = the network protocol designed for the Internet; part of the TCP/IP communications protocol

Interwoven = application - content management systems for professional service firms

intranet = local network

intranet = (vernacular) "within the network"

IP-Address = a number made up of four elements each with three digits resulting in the numerical identification of every node in an IP network

IP = Internet protocol

IP = short for IP-address

IP = Intellectual Property = legally recognised rights to copyrights, trademarks, patents, trade secrets etc.

ISDN = integrated services digital network

ISO = International Organization for Standardization, Geneva; an organization that sets international standards

ISO 2383 = IT Vocabulary (34 Parts)

ISO 8859 = 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets

ISO 9000 = a series of standards for quality management

ISO 9000:2005 = Quality management systems - Fundamentals and vocabulary

ISO 9001:2000 = Quality management systems - Requirements

ISO 9004:2000 = Quality management systems - Guidelines for performance improvements

ISO/IEC 9126-1:2001 = Software engineering - Product quality - Part 1: Quality model (available in English only)

ISO/IEC 9798-5:2009 = Information technology - Security techniques - Entity authentication - Part 5: Mechanisms using zero-knowledge techniques; See SAI Global

ISO 10002:2004 = Quality management - Customer satisfaction - Guidelines for complaints handling in organizations

ISO 10005:2005 =Quality management systems - Guidelines for quality plans

ISO 10006:2003 = Quality management systems - Guidelines for quality management in projects

ISO 10007:2003 = Quality management systems - Guidelines for configuration management

ISO/TR 10013:2001 = Guidelines for quality management system documentation

ISO/TR 10014:1998 = Guidelines for managing the economics of quality

ISO 10015:1999 = Quality management - Guidelines for training

ISO 10019:2005 = Guidelines for the selection of quality management system consultants and use of their services

ISO 12620:2009 = Terminology and other language and content resources - Specification of data categories and management of a Data Category Registry for language resources; See SAI Global

ISO/IEC 13236:1998 = Information technology - Quality of service: Framework

ISO/IEC TR 13243:1999 = Information technology - Quality of service - Guide to methods and mechanisms

ISO/IEC 13818-1:2007/Cor 2:2009 = Information technology - Generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information: Systems - Part 1 - Technical Corrigendum 2; See SAI Global

ISO 14000 = a series of standards regarding environmental management; their objective is to ensure products and services have the lowest possible environmental impact

ISO 14000is similar to ISO 9000 quality management in that both pertain to the process - the comprehensive outcome - of how a product is produced, rather than to the product itself. As with ISO 9000, certification is performed by third-party organisations rather than being awarded by ISO directly

ISO 14001 and ISO 14004: the initial standards, which introduce the idea of environmental management systems. These present a structured approach to setting environmental objectives and targets. Essentially, an organization may apply these broad conceptual tools to their own processes

ISO 14040 = pre-production planning and environment goal setting

ISO 14020 = labels and declarations

ISO 14030 = post-production environmental assessment

ISO 14062 = making improvements to environmental impact goals

ISO 14063 = addendum to 14020, discussing further communications on environmental impact

ISO/IEC 14496-5:2001/FDAmd 23 = Information technology - Coding of audio-visual objects - Part 5: Reference software - Amendment 23: Synthesized texture reference software; See SAI Global

ISO/IEC 14496-20:2008/FDAmd 2 = Information technology - Coding of audio-visual objects - Part 20: Lightweight Application Scene Representation (LASeR) and Simple Aggregation Format (SAF) - Amendment 2: Technology for scene adaptation; See SAI Global

ISO/IEC 16085:2004 = Information technology - Software life cycle processes - Risk management (available in English only)

ISO/IEC FDIS 24739-3 = Information technology - AT Attachment with Packet Interface - 7 - Part 3: Serial transport protocols and physical interconnect (ATA/ATAPI-7 V3); See SAI Global

ISO/IEC 27033-1:2009 = Information technology - Security techniques - Network security - Part 1: Overview and concepts; See SAI Global

ISO/IEC FDIS 29109-4 = Information technology - Conformance testing methodology for biometric data interchange formats defined in ISO/IEC 19794 - Part 4: Finger image data; See SAI Global

ISO 19011 = one audit protocol for both ISO 14000 and ISO 9000 series standards together (the ISO standard for any TQM system)

ISP = Internet service provider

IT = information technology

IT Business Analyst = a logician aware of both business processes and IT systems, an individual (usually with a BSc or MSc) who analyses the operations of a department or functional unit already known to require IT systems solution and automation. Works closely with systems analyst

IT Service Delivery =

IT&T = Information Technology & Telecommunications

ITIL = Information Technology Infrastructure Library

ITOL = Information Technology Online

ITSM = Information Technology Service Management

J = Java

J++ (pronounced "J-plus-plus" or "Java-plus-plus") = Windows-based Java development system used to create Java applications that can run on any platform

J2EE = Java 2 Enterprise Edition

Java = a general purpose, high-level, object-oriented, cross-platform programming language developed by Sun Microsystems

Java 2 Enterprise Edition (J2EE) = platform for developing component-based, multi-tier, enterprise-wide applications

JavaScript = Netscape's open language for website designers

JDE = JD Edwards

JD Edwards = now Oracle

JOINS = Join Statements (SQL methodology)

Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) = (pronounced "jay-peg") compression technique for colour images

JPEG = Joint Photographic Experts Group


JScript = MS's subset version of JavaScript

JSP = Java Service Pages

Kbps = kilobits per second

KEDB = knowledge (engineering) database

key performance indicator (KPI) = a quantitative result, the technical/mathematical/scientific formula for which has been agreed to beforehand, that will reflect the level of success or failure of a particular product, event, company, department, project, etc.

key success indicator (KSI) = See KPI

KM = knowledge management

KMI = knowledge management infrastucture (see tiers)

KMS = knowledge management solution

KMS = knowledge management (application) system

KPI = key performance indicator

KSI = key success indicator

LAN = local area network

Large Format = large format digital printing hardware

LDAP = Lightweight Directory Access Protocol

Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) = part of X.500; a "lightweight" DAP, because it uses a small amount of code (see DAP)

Linux = Novell application

Lean = business improvement tool for manufacturers

Lean/Six Sigma = both systems combined and integrated

Lisp = programming language

Macromedia = Dreamweaver, Flash, Fireworks

mainframe = an extremely large and costly computer requiring entire rooms of floor space supporting many users and running many programs simultaneously (e.g. IBM S370/3031). For a decade or more we have been told that the technology is obsolete, but mainframes are still a basic element of large platforms

Mbps = Megabit per second

meta-data = data that describes other data. Card catalogues and handwritten indexes are a form of meta-data. Includes data dictionaries within a plan or a file in a system that provides information about each data element. Could include a repository set up purely for the purpose of understanding the nature of data. It may also refer to any descriptive item about data, such as a HTML meta-tag or a title field in a media file

metadata = see meta-data

MHz = megahertz

MIB = management information base

mid-range = a computer used for medium-sized networks; the processing power between a mainframe and a microcomputer. Also called a mini-computer

mini-computer = see mid-range

MPS = MultiProcessing Specification (Intel)

MQSeries = See IBM Websphere MQ

MS = Microsoft

MS Access =

MS =

MS Excel =

MS Exchange = SQL

MS FrontPage =

MS InfoPath =

MS Office = Word, Excel, Outlook, Access, etc.

MS Outlook =

MS Project =

MS PowerPoint =

MS Publisher =

MS SharePoint =

MS SQL Server = TSQL

MS VBScript =

MS Visio =

MS Visual Studio =

MS Word =

MSMQ = Microsoft Message Queue

MultiProcessing Specification (MPS) = a specification defining how memory and interrupts are shared, used by Intel for designing SMP-based PCs

Myriad = a configurable software platform that supports information access using context-guided information retrieval and delivery: delivery-driven (adaptive hypermedia) and retrieval-driven (information retrieval systems such as Panoptic)

MySource Matrix = an open source web CMS; See

mySAP = see SAP

NDT = non-destructive testing

NetWeaver = see SAP

NetWare = Novell application

NetMail = Novell application

network = a group of computers, usually with a server, connected by a telecommunications link, that share information and resources, see LAN, WAN

network specialists = Network Architect, Security Specialist, LAN/WAN Administrator, Service Delivery Management Specialist

NICTA = National ICT Australia Limited

non-functional requirements = user requirements of a new system that are not represented by functional requirements but may have functional implication, e.g. learnability & understandability, operability, efficiency (performance levels), time factors, security, robustness & recoverability, extensibility, maintainability, portability

Novell = systems and applications supplier

NZS = New Zealand Standards

O & M = operations and maintenance

O & M = operations and management

O & M = operator and maintainer

O & M = organization and methods

ODBC = Open DataBase Connectivity

object-oriented (OO) = programming which defines not only the data structure, but also the types of functions that can be applied to the data structure, creating an object that has both data and functionality inherent in the object

OLAP = onLine analytical processing

OLTP = online transaction processing

online help = answers to FAQs asked by the user, usually by clicking on a representation of an FAQ or by using a Search engine

online user guide = user guide accessible by user, usually by clicking on icons or key words on the screen

OO = object-oriented

OO Methodology = software developing methodology based on the OO paradigm using an OOPL

OOPL = object-oriented programming language, Java, C++, Smalltalk, object-oriented versions of Pascal, etc.

Open DataBase Connectivity (ODBC) = a standard database access methodology that makes it possible for any application in the system to access any data from any source in the system regardless of which DBMS is handling the data by inserting a middle layer (a database driver) between the applications and the DBMSs, translating the application's data queries into commands that the DBMS can understand and respond to, and translating the response into a form that the application can receive and understand

open source software (OSS) = computer software whose source code is available under a copyright license that permits users to study, change, and improve the software, and to redistribute it in modified or unmodified form

operations management procedures = fault management, performance management, configuration management, inventory management, audit, risk management, and disaster recovery

operations manual = fault management, performance management, configuration management, inventory management, audit, risk management, and disaster recovery instructions related to the control and maintenance of a particular system built by the systems designers/engineers and testers for the systems administrator

optimisation = see application optimisation

Oracle = A database and application development software vendor. The Oracle database was the first DBMS to incorporate the SQL language and to be ported to a wide variety of platforms. Subsidiary, Liberate Technologies defined the specifications for a compliant platform

OSI = Open Systems Interconnection

Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) = international standard (ISO) model for communications worldwide. It divides the communication of information into seven logical layers: Physical, Data Link, Network, Transport, Session, Presentation, and Application

OSS = open source software

OSS = Operations Support Systems (Java initiative)

Outlook = MS application

P8 = See FileNet

PageMill = Adobe application

PAS = website monitoring applications

PeopleSoft = now Oracle

PERL = programming language

pcAnywhere = Symantec application

Photoshop = Adobe application

PHP = a general-purpose scripting language that can be embedded into HTML, used for Web development

pilot set-up and management guides =

PKI = public key infrastructure

platform = the main system, language or model upon which others rely

PMO = program management office

PMO = project management office

PNG = Portable Network Graphics

policy and procedures = the general body of directives emanating from and approved by management that explains how things operate and who is responsible

policy statement = a statement made by the Board of Directors regarding those things that they consider to be true, correct and/or important

policy manual = a document that discusses in detail all issues related to the implementation of a particular policy statement

political stakeholder = the stakeholder from the management or the legal section, concerned with legality, regulatory compliance, customer satisfaction, public awareness, safety, privacy

Portable Network Graphics (PNG) = (pronounced "ping") a bit-mapped graphics format similar to GIF

pricing index = index representing current price against past or projected prices, often against the price at an agreed start-date in the past

procedural documentation = the act of creating and integrating procedures

procedure = a document that describes a series of activities, tasks, decisions, calculations etc., that when undertaken in the sequence laid down produces the described result, product or outcome

process = a series of inputs, resources, scientific/mathematical/technical or human relationships, activities, tasks, decisions, calculations, changes, locations and temporal occurrences that will result in a given event, transformation, result, product or outcome

process reference manual = a document describing all aspects of a particular process and making reference to every procedure and work instruction related to the process

process-related documentation = high level narrative description, process flow chart, high level procedures, control links to detailed procedure and work instructions

process review = recommendation/strategy for process improvement, simplification and variation reduction, improvement in auditability

product information = detailed information describing a particular product

production control manual = manual containing all procedures used in the production process

Project time line = time line produced with MS Project

PL/SQL = Procedural Language (a particular) SQL; a programming language; Oracle's own form of SQL

project management = specialist terms & acronyms

proof reading = stage in the technical writing process where the final draft is read by a proof reader for error

PSA = preferred supplier agreement

PSA Panel = appointed panel for choosing preferred suppliers

public key infrastructure (PKI) = a standard set of rules to enable users in an insecure network such as the Internet to exchange secure data (such as confidential information and money); there is no international standard for PKI at present; the preferred method at present uses a public and a private digital cryptographic key produced simultaneously using the same algorithm by a third party trusted by the recipient (the certificating authority (CA)), the public key is made available in the public domain by the CA in the form of a public certificate and the private key is issued by the CA only to the recipient; anyone on the network who wants to communicate with the recipient uses the public key to encode their message but only the recipient's private key can "break" the code; often there is a fourth party trusted by both the sender and the recipient (the registering authority (RA)) used to verify the sender to the recipient before the breaking of the code by the recipient

QA = quality assurance

QA Testing = See UAT

QC = quality control

quality assurance (QA) = a process (assigned to a department, procedure or programme) for testing that hardware and/or software performs as originally specified

quality assurance analyst = a person who is responsible understanding QA standards (such as the ISO 9000 family) and applying them within an organization

quality control = a process (assigned to a department, procedure or programme) for testing and manipulating so that the quality of output (products and/or services) is maintained above a minimal level

R & D = research & development

R/1 (pronounced "R-one") = see SAP

R/2 (pronounced "R-two") = see SAP

R/3 (pronounced "R-three") = see SAP

RA = (the) registering authority (in public key infrastructure (PKI))

RDB = relational database

RDBMS = relational database management system

RDF = Resource Description Framework

registering authority (RA) = see public key infrastructure (PKI)

release = solutions handed over for final user acceptance testing

report writer = application that specialises in preparing reports and reporting best practice often industry based

requirements = see business requirements, user requirements, system functional requirements, non-functional requirements

Requirements Modeller = a member of the team (a specialist technical writer) who can understand business requirements and user requirements and translate them into system specifications, system functional requirements and non-functional requirements

risk management = specialist terms & acronyms

RM (pronounced letter by letter) = risk management

RoboHELP = Adobe application for building Help screens

roll-out = implementation programme (vernacular)

ROM = read-only-memory

Scheme = dialect of Lisp

S/MIME = Secure Multi-Purpose Internet Mail Extensions

SABA = human capital applications, learning, performance, talent

SAI (also known as Australian Standards) = distributors of national and international standards in Australia

SAI Global = for buying national and international standards in Australia

SAN = strorage area network

SAP = meant "Systems Analysis & Programming" in the 1970s but now just means SAP

SAP ABAP = Advanced Business Application Programming

SAP BEx = Business Explorer = reporting tool used to work with data in the BW database

SAP BW = Business (Information) Warehouse = database

SAP ECC = ERP Central Component = manufacturing control system

SAP FI/CO = SAP Finance & Control

SAP FICO = SAP Finance & Control

SAP KW = SAP Knowledge Warehouse

SAP R/1 = SAP with real-time data processing released in 1970s

SAP R/1 = SAP with real-time data processing released in 1970s

SAP R/2 = SAP with database and dialogue control released at the end of the 70s and different languages and currencies mid 80s

SAP R/3 = SAP with client-server, graphical interface and relational database mid 90s.

SAP mySAP Workplace = SAP with enterprise portal and role-specific access becomes industry-specific early 2000

SAP NetWeaver = SAP with services architecture and end-to-end business processes 2003

scenario-build = models describing probable or likely scenarios for end-user testing

schema = models describing database tables and the relationships between them

SDK = Software Development Kit (MS)

SDLC = system development life cycle

SDLC = Synchronous Data Link Control (IBM)

Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) = a protocol for transmitting private documents via the Internet using a cryptographic system that uses two keys to encrypt data - a public key known to everyone and a private or secret key known only to the recipient of the message

SEI (pronounced letter by letter) = Software Engineering Institute

SEO (pronounced letter by letter) = search engine optimisation

server = key controlling computer in a network

server = key controlling application whose main job is to respond to the needs of other applications (clients)

SES1 = Senior Executive Service 1 (of the APS)

SES2 = Senior Executive Service 2 (of the APS)

SES3 = Senior Executive Service 3 (of the APS)

shared service solutions (SSS) = high-quality, cost-effective corporate services shared across a corporation or government WAN

SharePoint = MS application

SimBuilder = assists in the writing of such things as Participant Guides and Trainer Manuals based on simulations gathered using iHelp, Simulations and HTML

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) = a protocol used to send e-mail on the Internet; a set of rules regarding the interaction between emailer and recipient

Six Sigma = business improvement tool for manufacturers

SME = subject matter expert

SMTP = Simple Mail Transfer Protocol

SNA = Systems Network Architecture

SNMP = Simple Network Management Protocol

SoA = Statement of Advice (FPA)

SOA = Service Oriented Architecture


SoAA = Statement of Additional Advice (FPA)

SOAP = Simple Object Access Protocol

SOE = standard operating environment

SOE WinPC = standard operating environment (for) Windows PCs

software development specialists = Senior Software Developer, System Architect, Data Warehouse Specialist

solutions = development directly related to solving particular requirements/problems

solutions architecture = development of architecture directly related to solving particular requirements/problems

SOM = System Object Model (IBM)

SOP (pronounced letter by letter) = standard operating procedure

SOX (pronounced letter by letter) = Sarbanes-Oxley compliance, corporate auditing requirements

specialist = See business analysis specialist

specialist = See network specialist

specialist = See software development specialist

specialist = See web specialist

specialist technical writer = a professional writer (usually viewed as "ghost writer") who specialises in a particular technical/scientific discipline or international standard and seeks to become more and more knowledgeable on this subject; closer to the techos/scientists; needs to learn particularities of the application/context and the related international standards on a particular project and the needs of particular audiences before starting the documentation process but may achieve high standards because of his/her intimate knowledge of this particular subject/standard; compare generalist

SQL (pronounced letter by letter) = structured query language

SR CLC TR 61158-1:2008 = Industrial Communication Networks - Fieldbus Specifications - Part 1: Overview and Guidance for the iec 61158 and iec 61784 Series; See SAI Global

SSL = Secure Sockets Layer

SSS = shared service solutions

SSSB = SQL Server Service Broker

SSRS = SQL Server Reporting Services

stakeholder = the customer to the tech writer (the customer who needs to be satisfied) is the manager or operator whose own customers are the audience of the document, usually called the stakeholder; there may be a number of these, See human resources stakeholder, political stakeholder, technical stakeholder

standard operating procedure (SOP) = a procedure or set of procedures to perform a given operation, maybe in reaction to a given event.

Standards Australia = SAI

stored function = MySQL tool

stored procedure = MySQL tool

stored routine = MySQL tool

structured query language (SQL) = a language used to interrogate and process data in a relational database. Programming extensions to SQL have turned it into a full-blown database programming language and all major DBMSs support the language.

Style Report = report writing tool

SUB Report = Crystal report writing tool

SUSE = Novell application

SVG = Scalable Vector Graphics

Sybase = SQL Server, client server specialists

Synchronous Data Link Control (SDLC) = an IBM bit-oriented protocol for use in SNA environment (See HDLC)

system = a group of independent but interrelated elements, such as processes, hardware, software, facilities, people, an integrated composite that provides a the capability to satisfy a stated objective

system administration & operations manual = technical, administrative and temporal instruction related to the control and maintenance of a system built by the systems designers/engineers and testers for the systems administrator

system administrator = team member assigned the responsibility for the control and maintenance of a system; the person who can make all decisions related to the operation and modification/development of the system while in operation

systems analyst = a specialist logician aware of a range of interactive computing processes, an individual (usually with a BSc or MSc) who analyses the operations of a system with the purpose of developing a particular systems solution to the problem. May need the assistance of a business analyst.

system development life cycle (SDLC) = a formal, adopted standard set of methodologies that can be used to develop, introduce, maintain, and replace systems, regardless of the system

systems engineer = member of an integrated team of systems specialists (usually big systems development)

system functional requirements = see functional requirements

system functional requirements specifications = for the configuration or development of new systems, see functional requirements specifications

system implementation = user acceptance and handover and bringing on-line, may include de-commissioning of the system being replaced

system maintenance = protocols for service and maintenance of a system, could include system service agreement and service level agreement

System Object Model (SOM) = an architecture developed by IBM that allows binary code to be shared by different applications

system performance test scripts = for all changes to applications

system set up (vernacular) = system implementation, maintenance of configurations registry and systems upgrade log

Systems Network Architecture (SNA) = data communications protocol (IBM)

TCP = transmission control protocol

TCP/IP = transmission control protocol/Internet protocol

TCP/IP = a communications protocol based on UNIX, developed to connect up dissimilar systems and has become the global standard for communications

technical author = technical writer (usually in the published book or manual form)

technical documentation = informal documentation written for a technical audience, the systems engineer/developer, programmer, systems analyst, business analyst, system administrator

technical reference manual = formal manual written for a technical audience, the systems engineer/developer, programmer, systems analyst, business analyst, system administrator, usually describing a system or a platform

technical stakeholder = the stakeholder from the technical section, concerned with national and international standards, compliance, useability, operability, resilience

technical writer = a professional writer (usually viewed as "ghost writer") who concentrates on writing about technical subjects to a particular audience; includes a generalist and a specialist

test case = a case with a set of real and likely data where the result is known beforehand for testing a system against requirements following creation or change

test cycles = unit test, system (end-to-end) test, regression testing, system integration testing, user acceptance testing

test scripts = formal written scripts for test cycles

test lead = local talk for a manager of day-to-day testing activities for a project based innovation or upgrade. It might include: Lead a team of test analysts / testers. Prepare estimates for required test resources and duration. Prepare high level test plan, write and implement testing strategies. Review test plan, test scenarios and test data throughout the project. Oversee quality and compliance to test standard. Manage team members on daily basis including tasks allocation, status monitoring and problem solving. Perform hands on testing. Coordinate and support UAT activities

tiers = levels of intrastucture design, such as three tiers of the knowledge management infrastructure: Discover (search), Organise (intelligent classification), and Connect (personalisation) (Verity K2 catalog)

tiers = levels of intrastucture design, such as four tiers of redundancy of a data centre: Susceptible, Redundant components, Concurrently maintainable, Fault tolerant (Tier IV electical designs)

tiers = levels of intrastucture design, such as three tiers (or stages) of enterprise infrastucture development: Tier One = functionality; Tier Two = client-server; Tier Three = multiple servers; See ERP

timely = temporal requirements of research, preparation, publication etc. based on needs of stakeholders

TISN = Trusted Information Sharing Network (for Critical Infrastructure Protection)

TOAD = database administration tool

TRIM = an off-the-shelf software application to manage electronic and paper corporate records. The product provides: email management, document management, records management workflow, image management, and web publishing.

TSQL (pronounced letter by letter) = transact structured query language (MS SQL server)

TQM (pronounced letter by letter) = total quality management

transition = formal temporally-based plan for replacing one platform with another; usually requires full SDLC

UAM = user authentication methodology (the basis of user access to a secure environment)

UAM = user acceptance methodology (the basis of UAT)

UAT = user acceptance testing

UCS = uniform communications standard

UDP (pronounced letter by letter) = user datagram protocol

UDP/IP (pronounced letter by letter) = communications protocol, less reliable than TCP/IP but useful for immediate relay such as Streaming media, VoIP and videoconferencing which doesn't check for dropped packets and retransmit them, you get what you get

UI = user interface (see GUI)

UML = unified modelling language

unified modelling language (UML) = a model developed by OMG for integrating development, includes business modelling, architectural and application modelling, development, deployment, maintenance, and evolution

UNIX (pronounced "yu-nix") = a portable, multi-tasking and multi-user computer operating system developed in the 1960s. Now a number of different development branches, including AT&T, several other commercial vendors, and non-profit organizations.

Unix = UNIX

uniform resource locator (URL) = address of a Web page residing on the same server or any server worldwide (WWW). This address defines the route to a file on an Internet server (Web server, FTP server, mail server, etc.)

URL (pronounced letter by letter or "erl") = uniform resource locator

URS = uniform reporting system

URS = unit reference sheet

URS = user requirements specification

USL = universal service levy

USO = universal service obligation

user acceptance = a formal process for involving the user in the sign off of a new system. For an in-house developed system it involves early statement of user requirements, a sign off of the functional plan by the user, and the sign off by the user following user acceptance testing against the original requirements. For a purchased system it involves a user requirements statement and a gap analysis.

user acceptance testing (UAT) = the final testing stages by users of a new or changed system. The system is tested for stability and whether it is processing data according to requirements. If successful, it signals the approval by the user to implement the system live.

user access = the key to access for the user of a secure environment; usually involves some formal UAM

use case = a formal methodology for defining system requirements; a scenario; software developers and end users cooperate to define how the system will need to interact with the world, such as with an end user or another system, to achieve a specific business goal

user guide = a document written by a technical writer to give assistance to people using the system.

user manual = user guide

user requirements = practical outcomes that will impact the user that are the reason for the development of a new system or for enhancements and modifications to an existing system

user requirements documentation = a business or strategic plan containing all user requirements and the reason for their inclusion

user requirements specification = a formal list of all user requirements contained within the user requirements documentation written in a form that allows validation that changes meet user requirements

VB = Visual Basic

VB.NET = an object-oriented programming language from <a href="#MS>MS

VBA = Visual BASIC (for) Applications

VBScript = MS scripting language

VBScript = Visual BASIC Script Edition

VDP = Virtual Document Planner (see Myriad)

Virtual Document Planner (VDP) = a goal-decomposition-based planning engine in the Myriad platform. The resources which control VDP are declarative (XML) plan libraries, which constrain and control which information is retrieved and how that information is organised and presented

virtualisation = see application virtualisation

Visio = MS application

Vision = OLAP engine from IQ Software, which was acquired by Information Advantage in 1998 and turned into MyEureka Cube Explorer and MyEureka Cube Server. It has been a Computer Associates product since 2000

Visual Basic = a version of BASIC for developing Windows applications

VoIP = voice over Internet protocol

W3 = WWW

W3C = WWW Consortium

WAN = wide area network

WAS = WebSphere application server

WBT = web-based training

WCGM = Web Computer Graphics Metafile

WCF = Windows Communication Foundation

WCM = web content management (part of ECM)

web specialists = Senior Web Consultant, Content Editor/Coordinator, Web Writer, and Web Designer

WebSphere (IBM) = application for information integration and reporting

Windows XP = a major upgrade to the client version of Windows 2000

WINS = Warehouse Information Network Standard (EDI talks to UCS)

WINS = Windows Internet Naming Service, an MS application mapping machine names to IP addresses

WMS = warehouse management software

WMS = Web Map Service

WMS map = in picture formats such as PNG, GIF or JPEG, or SVG or WCGM

Word = MS application

work instruction = a document that assigns particular tasks (mentioned or implied in a procedure) to a particular individual or group

WWW (pronounced letter by letter) = world wide web

WWW Consortium = international standards organization for WWW made up of member organizations who contribute full-time staff who work together on the development of standards for the WWW

WYSIWYG = what you see is what you get

WYSIWYG (pronounced "wiz-ee-wig") = an editor that allows a developer to see what the end result will look like while it is being built. These days it refers to HTML mark-up products such as MS FrontPage, PageMill, or HomeSite but even MS Word and Excel could be called WYSIWYG products

X.25 = an international standard for WAN networks using the phone or ISDN networking hardware. It defines layer 1 (standard physical), layer 2 (data link), and layer 3 (networking) of the OSI model

X.500 = an international standard for directory services in a network (see DAP, LDAP)

XSS = cross site script = a script attached to another object or application that causes a security breach when activated

XP (pronounced letter by letter) = extreme programming - formal set of rules about how one develops functionality (such as defining a test before writing the code and never designing more than is needed to support the code that is written)

XP = See Windows XP

ZENworks = Novell application

ZIP = Zone Information Protocol

Zone Information Protocol (ZIP) = a method of compressing data into a small size, so it can fit on a tiny data storage device or be transferred quickly over the Internet