Dictionary - Manufacturing

ADI = AutoCAD Device Interface

AEC = architecture engineering (and) construction

AEC CAD = architecture engineering and construction CAD

ANSI Y32.11: = Graphical Symbols For Process Flow Diagrams (withdrawn 2003)

APT = automated programming tool

AS = Australian Standards

AS/NZS = Australian Standards and New Zealand Standards combined publication

AS 3806:1998 = Compliance programs

AS/NZS ISO 31000:2009 = Risk management

AS/NZS 4801:2001 = Occupational health and safety management systems - Specification with guidance for use

AS 5037:2005 = Knowledge management - a guide

AS/NZS 9001:2000 = Quality management systems - Requirements

ASAP = "as soon as possible" (vernacular)

Australian Standards = SAI

AutoCAD =

B-spline = B?zier's spline; a mathematical formula for calculating the free form between points on a surface

best practice = formulas and procedures that have proven successful in practice, identified by general international acceptance. In the IT world, best practice often refers to software development methodologies widely accepted internationally

best practice policy = policy written for and adopted by the company (usually based on and involving the adoption of international best practice)

BIMS = business inventory management system

bit = the smallest unit in a binary system; on-off; 0-1 ; not in and of itself meaningful but when combined in a meaningful array (a byte) forms the basis of all information in a binary system

BLU = basic unit length

BOM = Bill of Material

BSI = British Standards Institute; UK Standards body; now BSI National Standards

byte = a meaningful array of 8 bits or 32 bits of information

CAD = computer aided design

CAD/CAM = computer aided design and computer aided manufacturing (technology)

CAE = computer aided engineering

CAM = computer aided manufacturing

CAPP = computer-aided process planning

CAx = computer-aided

CIM = computer-integrated manufacturing

CPD = collaborative product development

CPDM = collaborative product definition management

CRM = customer relationship management

CRP = capacity requirements planning

CBT = computer-based training

CLU = control loops unit

CMM = co-ordinate measuring machine; a probe measures 3-dimensial co-ordinates of a pro forma work piece from which the spline can be calculated

CMMS = computerised maintenance management systems

CNC = computerised numerical control

CNC = computer numerically controlled

CNC cutting = methodology of cutting utilised by CNC systems, includes laser, plasma, high definition plasma, flame, waterjet, guillotine, bending, rolling. etc.

CNC retrofit = existing manually controlled machinery transformed into CNC machinery

CNC system = usually consists of part program(s), machine control unit (MCU) and machine tool(s) (die, lathe, drill, press, mill, etc.)

code = program set of instructions (for CNC); see G-code

compliant environment = an environment tested against a particular standard

compliant platform = the main system, language or model tested against a particular standard

computer numerical control = program of automation; machining operations directed by mathematical data and programs in a computer

CPG = consumer packaged goods

CPU = central processing unit

data = the generic name for information that exists in a base form (usually but not necessarily a meaningful array of 8 bits or 32 bits) that can be stored and accessed by applications and used in the delivery of that information or as the source for the processing of and combination with and delivery of other related information

data dictionary = a series of data tables and a dictionary of all data elements, their source and transformations through the system

data flow analysis = data input, data output, data tables, data dictionary

data input = data flows into the system, their source, format and frequency

data modelling = see ERM

data output = data flows out of the system, their source, format and frequency

data warehouse = DBMS, DMS, data storage systems, meta-data

DBMS = database management system

de Boor's algorithm = a mathematical formula for evaluating spline curves in B-spline form

desktop (graphical representation) = the graphical representation of an office environment (with card index, waste bin, filing cabinet, and so on) that is a feature of GUIs

desktop (strategic) = the user's environment on the network, desktop (what can be installed on the user's PC) versus calls on the server, installing more applications on the desktop requiring less interaction with the server

DGN = design (CAD file format extension)

disaster recovery planning (DRP) = the process of planning for the recovery from an identified risk of a magnitude categorised as a disaster to pre-disaster condition

DMAIC = define, measure, analyse, improve, control : process improvement methodology

DNC = digital network control

downtime = operations must cease; machines cease to function; caused by re-tooling, mechanical problems, lack of materials, etc.

DPU = data processing unit

drill = machining tool

Digital Manufacturing =

DMU = Digital Mock-Up

DNC = Distributed Numerical Control

DRO = digital read out

DRP (pronounced letter by letter) = disaster recovery planning

DXF = design (AutoCAD file format extension)

ECAD = electronic CAD

ECC = ERP central component

EDA = electronic design automation

EIA Standard Code = a standard code for positioning, linear motion, and contouring control systems proposed by US Standard RS-244

end mill = machining tool

end user testing = See UAT

environment = the systemic connections to an element of the system (usually the application), including communications and related applications

ethics dictionary = some important words for corporate ethics

EPC = electronic product code (See RFID)

ERP = enterprise resource planning

ERP software = an integrated information system over the whole enterprise in the manufacturing industry; packaged software including manufacturing, order entry, accounts receivable and payable, general ledger, purchasing, warehousing, transportation and human resources. The major ERP vendors are SAP, PeopleSoft, Oracle, Baan and J.D. Edwards

face mill = machining tool

FAQ = frequently asked question

finishing = final operations performed on product

fixed automation = repetitive operations; an agreed process that can be performed over and over to achieve high volume

FMCG = fast-moving consumer goods

frequently asked question (FAQ) = a means whereby a question to be asked by the user in a help system can be predicted and answered, allowing users immediate answer to their questions by clicking on the FAQ

functional requirements = an initial definition of a proposed system, which translates user requirements into a set of requirements internal to the system being created from which programming can take place

functional requirements specifications = a formal statement containing the functional requirements translated into a set of integrated specifications

how to = user guides

G-code = programming language for programs to control NC and CNC machine tools

G & M code =

gap analysis = formal analysis of the difference between a system specification and a particular set of functional analysis and user requirements

GDSN = Global Data Synchronisation Network (See GS1)

glossary = a list of words that have special meaning because of their context of use and an explanation of the special definitions assigned to them

grinder = machining tool

GS1 = global language of business

hardware = physical components (of a CNC machine or a computer)

help-desk = a call centre or telephone service that appears to the outside user to be a single point of contact for a user experiencing problems or seeking further information

help-desk script = a technical procedure or FAQ re-written into conversational language that assists a help-desk or call centre operator give advice or answer questions

HRM = human resource management

index = any statistical representation or indicator

index = a numerical scale used to compare variables with one another or with some reference number often used in financial industry for a quick and easily understood indicator of the price or the value of the securities in a given market

installation guide = a user guide for installation by the user of a small or commercially available application

interface = control panel and displays with which the operator interacts with the CNC machine or computer

internal stakeholder = See stakeholder

internet = a large network made up of a number of smaller networks

Internet = one internet (now known as "the Internet") that has gained wide international acceptance and has adopted the generic name as its identifier

intranet = (vernacular) "within the network"

IP = Intellectual Property = legally recognised rights to copyrights, trademarks, patents, trade secrets etc.

ISDN = integrated services digital network

ISO = International Organization for Standardization, Geneva; an organization that sets international standards

ISO 9000 = a series of standards for quality management

ISO 9000:2005 = Quality management systems - Fundamentals and vocabulary

ISO 9001:2000 = Quality management systems - Requirements

ISO 9004:2000 = Quality management systems - Guidelines for performance improvements

ISO/IEC 9126-1:2001 = Software engineering - Product quality - Part 1: Quality model (available in English only)

ISO 10002:2004 = Quality management - Customer satisfaction - Guidelines for complaints handling in organizations

ISO 10005:2005 =Quality management systems - Guidelines for quality plans

ISO 10006:2003 = Quality management systems - Guidelines for quality management in projects

ISO 10007:2003 = Quality management systems - Guidelines for configuration management

ISO/TR 10013:2001 = Guidelines for quality management system documentation

ISO/TR 10014:1998 = Guidelines for managing the economics of quality

ISO 10015:1999 = Quality management - Guidelines for training

ISO 10019:2005 = Guidelines for the selection of quality management system consultants and use of their services

ISO 10628: = Flow Diagrams For Process Plants - General Rules

JIT = just in time

JIT Kanban = a card, labelled container, computer order, or other device used to signal that more products or parts are needed in production; used to control work-in-progress (WIP), production, and inventory levels

just in time (JIT) = produce product or part just in time for the sale or the next operation; a pull philosophy where production levels are driven by actual demand; seeks to reduce inventory and waste, but leaves no room for immediate response or schedule error

job = work that can be performed in a single fixed automation session without changeover or downtime (can be written on one job card)

job changeover = time taken to switch to a new job

KEDB = knowledge (engineering) database

key performance indicator (KPI) = a quantitative result, the technical/mathematical/scientific formula for which has been agreed to beforehand, that will reflect the level of success or failure of a particular product, event, company, department, project, etc.

key success indicator (KSI) = See KPI

Kaizen Blitz = a team event aimed at rapid improvements to Lean

Kanban = upstream to downstream automatic ordering of levels of production; triggered by the customer order or similar event

KPI = key performance indicator

KSI = key success indicator

LAN = local area network

lathe = machining tool

Lean = business improvement tool for manufacturers

Lean/Six Sigma = both systems combined and integrated

machine control unit (MCU) = computer that controls and operates the CNC machine

machine control unit (MCU) = consists of the main program, the data processing unit (DPU) and the control loops unit (CLU)

machine tool = lathe, mill, drill, laser, plasma, etc.

magazine = arrange a number of tools so that the CNC machine can rapidly change from one machining operation to another

mainframe = an extremely large and costly computer requiring entire rooms of floor space supporting many users and running many programs simultaneously (e.g. IBM S370/3031). For a decade or more we have been told that the technology is obsolete, but mainframes are still a basic element of large platforms

Mbps = Megabit per second

MCAD = mechanical CAD

MCU = machine control unit

MDA = mechanical design automation

MES = Manufacturing Execution System

meta-data = data that describes other data. Card catalogues and handwritten indexes are a form of meta-data. Includes data dictionaries within a plan or a file in a system that provides information about each data element. Could include a repository set up purely for the purpose of understanding the nature of data. It may also refer to any descriptive item about data, such as a HTML meta-tag or a title field in a media file

metadata = see meta-data

mid-range = a computer used for medium-sized networks; the processing power between a mainframe and a microcomputer. Also called a mini-computer

mill = machining tool

mini-computer = see mid-range

MPM = manufacturing process management

MPS = Master Production Schedule

MRP II = manufacturing resource planning

MRP = material requirement planning

NC = numerical control

NC = numerically controlled

NDT = non-destructive testing

network = a group of computers, usually with a server, connected by a telecommunications link, that share information and resources, see LAN, WAN

non-functional requirements = user requirements of a new system that are not represented by functional requirements but may have functional implication, e.g. learnability & understandability, operability, efficiency (performance levels), time factors, security, robustness & recoverability, extensibility, maintainability, portability

NURBS = Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline

NZS = New Zealand Standards

O & M = operations and maintenance

O & M = operations and management

O & M = operator and maintainer

O & M = organization and methods

operations management procedures = fault management, performance management, configuration management, inventory management, audit, risk management, and disaster recovery

operations manual = fault management, performance management, configuration management, inventory management, audit, risk management, and disaster recovery instructions related to the control and maintenance of a particular system built by the systems designers/engineers and testers for the systems administrator

optimisation = see application optimisation

P & ID = process and instumentation design/diagram

part program = numerical instructions to a CNC machine to perform the necessary sequence of operations; such as 3-D position, motion, parameters and on/off

PDE = plant design engineering

PDM = product data management

PFD = process flow design/diagram

PDS = plant design specification

personal = some terms & acronyms that impact on ordinary people in their private lives

philosophical concepts = special terms and phrases

pilot set-up and management guides =

platform = the main system, language or model upon which others rely

PLM = Product Lifecyle Management

point-to-point = an array of instructions in the traverse from the start point to the finish point, then the instructions are repeated

policy and procedures = the general body of directives emanating from and approved by management that explains how things operate and who is responsible

policy statement = a statement made by the Board of Directors regarding those things that they consider to be true, correct and/or important

policy manual = a document that discusses in detail all issues related to the implementation of a particular policy statement

procedural documentation = the act of creating and integrating procedures

procedure = a document that describes a series of activities, tasks, decisions, calculations etc., that when undertaken in the sequence laid down produces the described result, product or outcome

process = a series of inputs, resources, scientific/mathematical/technical or human relationships, activities, tasks, decisions, calculations, changes, locations and temporal occurrences that will result in a given event, transformation, result, product or outcome

process reference manual = a document describing all aspects of a particular process and making reference to every procedure and work instruction related to the process

process-related documentation = high level narrative description, process flow chart, high level procedures, control links to detailed procedure and work instructions

process review = recommendation/strategy for process improvement, simplification and variation reduction, improvement in auditability

product information = detailed information describing a particular product

production control manual = manual containing all procedures used in the production process

prototype = test model (of a product)

PSA = preferred supplier agreement

PSA Panel = appointed panel for choosing preferred suppliers

pull = production driven by actual demand

punch press = machining tool

push = production driven by historical trends and forecasts

QA = quality assurance

QA Testing = See UAT

QC = quality control

quality = compliant with ISO 9000, ISO 9001, ISO 14000, etc.

quality assurance (QA = a process (assigned to a department, procedure or programme) for testing that hardware and/or software performs as originally specified

quality assurance analyst = a person who is responsible understanding QA standards (such as the ISO 9000 family) and applying them within an organization

quality control = a process (assigned to a department, procedure or programme) for testing and manipulating so that the quality of output (products and/or services) is maintained above a minimal level

R & D = research & development

Rapid Prototyping =

report writer = application that specialises in preparing reports and reporting best practice often industry based

requirements = see business requirements, user requirements, systems functional requirements, non-functional requirements

Requirements Modeller = a member of the team (a specialist technical writer) who can understand business requirements and user requirements and translate them into system specifications, systems functional requirements and non-functional requirements

RFID = radio frequency identification (See EPC)

risk management = specialist terms & acronyms

RM (pronounced letter by letter) = risk management

roll-out = implementation programme (vernacular)

ROM = read-only-memory

SAA AS 1109: = Graphical Symbols For Process Flow Diagrams For The Food Industry

SAI (also known as Australian Standards) = distributors of national and international standards in Australia

SAN = storage area network

scenario-build = models describing probable or likely scenarios for end-user testing

SCM = supply chain management

SDLC = system development life cycle

server = key controlling computer in a network

server = key controlling application whose main job is to respond to the needs of other applications (clients)

shared service solutions (SSS) = high-quality, cost-effective corporate services shared across a corporation or government WAN

Six Sigma = business improvement tool for manufacturers

solutions = development directly related to solving particular requirements/problems

solutions architecture = development of architecture directly related to solving particular requirements/problems

SOP (pronounced letter by letter) = standard operating procedure

SOX (pronounced letter by letter) = Sarbanes-Oxley compliance, corporate auditing requirements

stamp = process performed on metal using dies and punches

standard operating procedure (SOP) = a procedure or set of procedures to perform a given operation, maybe in reaction to a given event.

Standards Australia = SAI

supply cataloguer = specialist technical writer employed to produce and maintain accurate product item master file involving: research product item identification data from user and manufacturer/supplier and purchasing/procurement data; codify new stock applications; avoid duplication; assign names using the taxonomy of NATO, EOTD, AUSLANG or UNSPSC etc.; enter into the ERP/EAM system and/or purchasing and inventory management systems; liaise with technical staff, vendors and suppliers to ensure satisfaction of user requirements; maintain resource data, CD's, technical handbooks, new publications and catalogues etc; maintain and update data standards in line with technical developments

supply chain management (SCM) = planning, schedule and control the supply chain from manufacturer to wholesaler to retailer to consumer with a view to reducing inventory; high rewards but high risks

three-axis = information that describes the motion and position of an object using three-dimensional (x, y and z) data

three dimensional data = data derived from (x, y and z) mathematical model

timely = temporal requirements of research, preparation, publication etc. based on needs of stakeholders

TQM (pronounced letter by letter) = total quality management

transition = formal temporally-based plan for replacing one platform with another; usually requires full SDLC

turret press = a CNC punch press that contains several tools

UAM = user authentication methodology (the basis of user access to a secure environment)

UAM = user acceptance methodology (the basis of UAT)

UAT = user acceptance testing

UNSPSC (pronounced letter by letter) = United Nations Standard Products & Services Code

user acceptance = a formal process for involving the user in the sign off of a new system. For an in-house developed system it involves early statement of user requirements, a sign off of the functional plan by the user, and the sign off by the user following user acceptance testing against the original requirements. For a purchased system it involves a user requirements statement and a gap analysis.

user acceptance testing (UAT) = the final testing stages by users of a new or changed system. The system is tested for stability and whether it is processing data according to requirements. If successful, it signals the approval by the user to implement the system live.

user access = the key to access for the user of a secure environment; usually involves some formal UAM

use case = a formal methodology for defining system requirements; a scenario; software developers and end users cooperate to define how the system will need to interact with the world, such as with an end user or another system, to achieve a specific business goal

user guide = a document written by a technical writer to give assistance to people using the system.

user manual = user guide

user requirements = practical outcomes that will impact the user that are the reason for the development of a new system or for enhancements and modifications to an existing system

user requirements documentation = a business or strategic plan containing all user requirements and the reason for their inclusion

user requirements specification = a formal list of all user requirements contained within the user requirements documentation written in a form that allows validation that changes meet user requirements

VSM = value stream mapping

waste = waste identied under Lean: motion; over-processing; over-production; waiting (WIP, inventory, resources); rejects; rework; transportation

welder = a tool used to join two pieces of metal together

WIP = work in progress

work instruction = a document that assigns particular tasks (mentioned or implied in a procedure) to a particular individual or group

work in progress (WIP) = an account containing costing to date of all production started but not finished at the time of accounting; raw materials, labour, and overhead expended to date on unfinished product; costed at agreed costing method such as standard costing